The electric force - Felect - joins the long list of other forces that can act upon objects. The analysis usually begins with the construction of a free-body diagram in which the type and direction of the individual forces are represented by vector arrows and labeled according to type. The magnitudes of the forces are then added as vectors in order to determine the resultant sum, also known as the net force.
This invention relates to electrostatic generators for the production of direct current voltages, and also to apparatus including an electrostatic generator and the electrical device, such as an X-ray tube, operated thereby.
Influence machines of the general types designed by Holtz and Wimshurst have been employed in the production of direct current potentials, but the output voltages have been restricted to relatively low values.
The presence of the conducting wires or bodies required to transfer the electrical charges from the rotating disks to the generator terminals facilitates leakage and limits the maximum voltage that may be established between the generator terminals.
Higher potentials may be obtained by the rectification of alternating current but apparatus of this type is quite costly and, as with influence machines, the maximum available voltage is limited.
So far as I am aware, the maximum steady direct current voltage attained by prior workers in this art was aboutvolts, and was obtained by the rectification of alternating current. An object is to provide a generator in which the electrical charges are established directly upon the electrodes or terminals, as distinguished from prior influence machines in which the charges were collected upon a system of conductors leading to the electrodes.
A further object is to provide an electrostatic generator having electrodes in the form of hollow bodies, and non-conducting charge carriers which transfer charges between the interior of the hollow electrodes and a grounded point.
More specifically, an object is to provide an electrostatic generator including two hollow electrodes supported on insulator columns, and a charge carrier for each electrode, the charge carriers having the form of silk belts passing over pulleys within the electrodes and driven by motors located at the base of the insulator columns.
Other specific objects relate to the provision of high voltage apparatus combining generators of the types stated with the high potential electrical apparatus to be energized thereby. These and other objects of the invention will be apparent from the following specification when taken with the accompanying drawings, in which, Fig.
Two substantially identical units are shown in Fig. Each unit includes a wheeled supporting base 1 to which is secured'a bracket 2 that carries an insulator column 3.
The insulators 3 may be, and preferably are, glass rods of a height sufficient to provide adequate insulation between the grounded base 1 and hollow electrodes 4 that are mounted on the rods 3. The exterior surfaces of the electrodes 4 are free from projections or points which would promote leakage and, in general, will be of spherical form.
The lower portion of each electrode is provided with slots 5 for passage of a non-conducting belt 6 that passes over a pulley 7 mounted Within the electrodes 4 and a conducting pulley 8 that is located at and driven by a motor 9 on the base 1.
The belt 6 is non-conducting and may be silk or a fabric treated with a non-conducting flexible plastic, such as a cellulose ester.
Interposed between the two runs of each belt is a solid insulating medium, herein of glass, and comprising the glass rod 3. Within the electrode, brushes or combs 10 are provided adjacent the belt 6, the brushes being electrically connected to the interior of the electrode.
The belts 6 constitute the charge carriers which transfer to the electrodes the electrical charges which are established at the lower ends of the belts.
The apparatus for charging the belts is shown diagrammatically in Fig. The terminal of the secondary which is negative, during cycles when rectifier 13 is conductive is connected to ground and the positive terminal of rectifier 13 is connected to a brush electrode 14 adjacent the portion of the upward run of belt 6 where it engages the lower pulley of the positive electrode unit.
At the negative electrode unit, a conductor 15 extends from ground to a brush electrode 16 that is adjacent the lower portion of the upward run of the belt and directly opposite the rounded electrode 17 that is connected to the positive terminal of the rectifier The electrical charges placed on the belts by this low voltage circuit are indicated by the and signs adjacent the belts.
It will be apparent that, as each charged belt passes by the brushes 10, the charge passes from the belt to the brush, and thence to the interior surface of the electrode 4. As charges can not remain upon the interior surface of a hollow body, the electrical charges pass to the exterior surfaces of the electrodes.
The fact that charges will not accumulate at the interior surface makes it possible to increase the charge or voltage on the electrodes 4 to a value determined only by the form and location of the electrodes.The paper is a study for the better understanding of electrostatic discharge (ESD).
Electrostatic discharge can change the electrical characteristics of a semiconductor device, degrading or.
This research investigates the influence of computer simulations (virtual experiments) on one hand and real experiments on the other hand on the conceptual understanding of electrical charging. In the present study, our objectives were to establish a sound experimental approach to measure bi-polar charging in powder mixtures, to gain better understanding of the polarity of fine particles in binary mixtures, and to advance understanding of how fine particles influence charge generation and dissipation in powder handling processes.
Jun 13, · A better approach is the so-called influence machine. These machines use electrostatic induction, a principle discovered in by John Canton and again in by Johan Carl Wilcke. Discrete element modeling of electrostatic charging of polyethylene powder particles.
Mathematical modeling is beneficial for the better understanding of electrostatic charge-related problems, because it enables detailed analysis of various phenomena and their mutual interactions.
In order to gradually increase the amount of charge in. Instead, the free-body diagram is used to determine the spatial separation or charge of two objects that are at static equilibrium. In this case, the free-body diagram is combined with an understanding of vector principles in order to determine some unknown quantity in the midst of a puzzle involving geometry, trigonometry and Coulomb's law.