A basic service is an improved drinking-water source within a round trip of 30 minutes to collect water. Globally, at least 2 billion people use a drinking water source contaminated with faeces.
Water scarcity is among the main problems to be faced by many societies and the World in the XXIst century. Water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century, What is water scarcity, although there is no global water scarcity as such, an increasing number of regions are chronically short of water.
Water scarcity is both a natural and a human-made phenomenon. There is enough freshwater on the planet for seven billion people but it is distributed unevenly and too much of it is wasted, polluted and unsustainably managed.
Human Development Report UNDP, Coping with water scarcity. Challenge of the twenty-first century. Access to water for domestic and productive uses agriculture, industry, and other economic activities has a direct impact on poverty and food security.
Incidence of catastrophic but often recurrent events, such as droughts, interrupts educational attainment. Access to water, in particular in conditions of scarce resources, has important gender related implications, which affects the social and economic capital of women in What is water scarcity of leadership, earnings and networking opportunities.
MDGs 4 and 5: Equitable, reliable water resources management programmes reduce poor people's vulnerability to shocks, which in turn gives them more secure and fruitful livelihoods to draw upon in caring for their children.
Access to water, and improved water and wastewater management in human settlements, reduce transmission risks of mosquito-borne illnesses, such as malaria and dengue fever. Adequate treatment of wastewater contributes to less pressure on freshwater resources, helping to protect human and environmental health.
Water scarcity increasingly calls for strengthened international cooperation in the fields of technologies for enhanced water productivity, financing opportunities, and an improved environment to share the benefits of scarce water management.
Water stress versus water scarcity Hydrologists typically assess scarcity by looking at the population-water equation.
An area is experiencing water stress when annual water supplies drop below 1, m3 per person. When annual water supplies drop below 1, m3 per person, the population faces water scarcity, and below cubic metres "absolute scarcity".
World Water Development Report 4. Water scarcity is defined as the point at which the aggregate impact of all users impinges on the supply or quality of water under prevailing institutional arrangements to the extent that the demand by all sectors, including the environment, cannot be satisfied fully.
Water scarcity is a relative concept and can occur at any level of supply or demand. Scarcity may be a social construct a product of affluence, expectations and customary behaviour or the consequence of altered supply patterns - stemming from climate change for example.
Around million people in 43 countries suffer today from water scarcity.
With the existing climate change scenario, almost half the world's population will be living in areas of high water stress byincluding between 75 million and million people in Africa.
In addition, water scarcity in some arid and semi-arid places will displace between 24 million and million people. Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of water-stressed countries of any region. UN initiatives that are helping to raise the issue World Water Day Coping with water scarcity World Water Day was dedicated to the theme "Coping with water scarcity".
It highlighted the increasing significance of water scarcity worldwide and the need for increased integration and cooperation to ensure sustainable, efficient and equitable management of scarce water resources, both at international and local levels. This year's slogan, "Don't let our future dry up", calls for everyone to take action to promote preparedness and resilience to water scarcity, desertification and drought.
The slogan embodies the message that we are all responsible for water and land conservation and sustainable use, and that there are solutions to these serious natural resource challenges. January This publication examines desertification as a cause of global conflict and instability and calls for urgent action to support communities in crisis.
It explores the impacts desertification has on the lives of many under the titles: Food in security — farming ourselves into extinction; Water in security — water scarcity triggers conflicts; Climate — changing the face of the earth changes the humanity; Migration — fight or flee; National Security — breaking down; Inaction, recipe for International Political and Economic chaos; Securitizing productive land — securing peace and stability; Investing in large scale restoration initiatives; Drought management measures; Institutional reforms; and culminates with Taking action now, a summary on what we can do now, to secure a future capable of dealing with drought risk.
Coping with water scarcity. August This report focuses on the importance of the drylands issue on the global agenda and its relation to other issues, including climate change, food security and human settlements. The report illustrates the many ways in which the UN system is identifying opportunities to mainstream the drylands agenda into the policy-making process.
It sets out a common vision and agenda for UN-wide action on dryland management and its role in addressing climate change and food security through a positive development and investment approach. The report is aimed at a number of audiences, with certain objectives: October This report focuses on the importance of the drylands issue on the global agenda and its relation to other issues, including climate change, food security and human settlements.
September The use of reclaimed water in agriculture is an option that is increasingly being investigated and taken up in regions with water scarcity, growing urban populations and growing demand for irrigation water.Clean freshwater is an essential ingredient for a healthy human life, but billion people lack access to water and billion experience water scarcity at least one month a year.
By , two-thirds of the world’s population may be facing water shortages. This report describes how the region’s current water challenges go far beyond age-old constraints of water scarcity.
The report explores how countries can anticipate and act to strengthen water security, rather than waiting to react to the inevitable disruptions of water crises. A child helps his father carry water containers as they fetch drinking water in Bangladesh. Because the area is surrounded by saline water, scarcity of drinking water is a major problem.
Water Scarcity When evaluating water risks, we start at a high level with an enterprise-wide review of physical water supply risks around the world using the IPIECA Global Water Tool for Oil and Gas.
Water scarcity can mean scarcity in availability due to physical shortage, or scarcity in access due to the failure of institutions to ensure a regular supply or due to a lack of adequate infrastructure.
Water scarcity or lack of safe drinking water is one of the world's leading problems affecting more than billion people globally, meaning that one in every six people lacks access to safe drinking water.